Regulatory systems in Europe
Various European directives, standards and operations, directly or indirectly impact the field of ventilation. Here are the main examples:
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)
The objective of the EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, Directive 2002/91/CE of the 12/16/2002) is to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the European Community.
This Directive is based on five principles:
1. The general framework for a calculation methodology for the integrated energy performance of buildings. The common methodology of calculation should include all the elements that determine the energy efficiency and not only the quality of building insulation. This integrated approach should take into account elements such as heating, cooling, lighting installation, ventilation systems, the building location, and orientation.
2. The application of minimum requirements for the energy performance of new buildings.
3. The application of minimum requirements for the energy performance of large existing buildings that are subject to major renovation; Member States are required to set minimum standards.
4. The energy certification of buildings (new, existing, and public buildings), the display of certificates and other relevant information (certifications should be issued for no more than five years). Certificates must be provided during the construction, sale or rental of a building. This is particularly important where rental is concerned, in order to ensure that the owner takes the necessary measures, as the tennant is generally liable for the costs of energy consumption. During construction, sale or rental, a certificate on the energy performance of the residence must be communicated to the owner, or by the owner to the potential buyer or the tenant as applicable.
5. Regular inspection of boilers and air-conditioning systems in buildings, and an assessment of the heating installations in which the boiler is more than 15 years old. These clauses were transposed into national law. In addition to an impact on the performance level required by the thermal regulation, the directive has also enabled the creation of the Energy Performance Diagnostic (EPD), and the energy saving certificate (ESC).
The recast of the EPBD was published in June 2010: you can download it here.
Energy Saving Certificates: a new instrument for energy efficiency
The energy saving certificates (SEC), established by the POPE law (guidelines program for energy policy), is one of the flagship instruments of the energy demand management policy.
This is based on an obligation to achieve energy savings imposed by governments on energy suppliers, called the “forced” (electricity, gas, heat, cold, heating oil and new fuels for cars). They are thus encouraged to actively promote energy efficiency to their clients: households, local or professionals authorities. A three-year goal is defined and distributed among the operators based on their sale volumes. At the end of this period, sellers of “forced” energies are required to justify their obligations achievement by holding an amount of certificates equivalent to those obligations.
Certificates are obtained as a result of actions taken by the operators or by the purchasing the services of others who have carried out energy efficiency work. In cases of non compliance with their obligations, the “forced” suppliers are required to pay a discharge penalty of two euro-cents per kW missing.
The energy saving certificates are allocated, under certain conditions, by the energy Ministry services to eligible actors (“forced”, but also other non forced legal persons) who realised energy saving operations.
Following the success of the first period (mid 2006 – mid 2009) for which the requirement for energy saving obligation was 54 TWh, governments wanted to extend the programme for a second three-year period. It began on 1st January 2011 and the corresponding energy saving target is 345 TWh.
Source : EC
European Standards for ventilation
CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) is currently in charge of standards regarding the ventilation of buildings. Within CEN, Technical Committee 156 is actually writing these Standards. Below are some of the most used European Standards:
- EN 13141-1 – Ventilation for buildings – Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation – Part 1: externally and internally mounted air transfer devices
- EN 13141-2 – Ventilation for buildings – Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation – Part 2: exhaust and supply air terminal devices
- EN 13141-3 – Ventilation for buildings – Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation – Part 3: range hoods for residential use
- EN 13141-4 – Ventilation for buildings – Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation – Part 4: fans used in residential ventilation systems
- EN 13141-6 – Ventilation for buildings – Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation – Part 6: exhaust ventilation system packages used in a single dwelling
- EN 13141-7 – Ventilation for buildings – Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation – Part 7: performance testing of mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation units (including heat recovery) for mechanical ventilation systems intended for single family dwellings
- EN 13141-9 – Ventilation for buildings – Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation – Part 9: Humidity controlled external air inlet
- EN 13141-10 – Ventilation for buildings – Performance testing of components/products for residential ventilation – Part 10: Humidity controlled exhaust air terminal.
* abstract from an AIVC Webinar “Demand-Controlled Ventilation in the European context: approaches in 4 countries and at the EU level” (November 2012)